is the term used for eight naturally occurring, fat-soluble nutrients
called tocopherols. Alpha-Tocopherol is essential, has the highest
biological activity, and predominates in many species.
is an essential trace mineral and functions as part of the antioxidant
enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is bonded to the essential sulfur amino
acid, methionine, in a naturally occurring form as found in the diet.
Selenium is found most abundantly in Brazil Nuts, organ meats, seafood, and
Symptoms of Vitamin E Deficiency:
The symptoms of vitamin E deficiency include muscle weakness, loss of
muscle mass, abnormal eye movements, impaired vision, and unsteady gait. In
more severe cases, vitamin E deficiency can compromise the function of the
liver and kidneys. Vitamin E deficiency has been associated with serial
miscarriages and premature delivery in pregnant women.
In human beings, vitamin E is the most important fat-soluble antioxidant.
It prevents the potentially harmful oxidation of fat compounds and enhances
the functioning of vitamin A. It is an anti-pollutant for the lungs. It
helps the healing of scar tissue when taken internally and also when
The best natural sources are wheat germ, whole grains, vegetable oils, soya
beans, nuts, apples, apricots, and green vegetables.
Vitamin E deficiency may cause anemia, as a result of red blood cell
destruction and neurological dysfunction, myopathies, and diminished
erythrocyte life span. New clinical evidence from heavy drinkers suggests
that alcohol may increase the oxidation of Alpha-Tocopherol. Increased demand
has also been observed in premature infants and patients with
Your best bet for a good blend of mixed tocopherols in a softgel form is
LifeSource Vitamins Vitamin E with 20% Mixed Tocopherols.
See Other LifeSource Vitamins Vitamin E Products, Articles, and
Current Research on Vitamin E:
Tocopherol may play an essential role in the defense of eye and skin cells
against many light-induced diseases and/or conditions. Vitamin E may share
a protective role in the membranes of plant and animal cells that are
naturally predisposed to photo-oxidative stress. It may play a prophylactic
role against diseases and conditions of the eye (cataractogenesis and
retinal photodeterioration) and skin (erythrocyte photochemolysis,
photoerythema, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis).
UV radiation can cause adverse effects such as sunburn, immunologic
suppression, photo-aging, skin tumors, and photosensitivity reactions. In a
study looking at the protective effects of vitamin C and vitamin E against
sunburn, researchers found combined vitamins C and E reduced sunburn
reaction. It was concluded that this might help reduce the risk for later
UV-induced skin damage.
Crohn's Disease and Short Bowel Syndrome:
Vitamin E deficiency can result from malabsorption of the vitamin due to
fat malabsorption resulting from Crohn's disease with short-bowel syndrome.
A study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that
vitamin E preparations may aid in intestinal absorption of vitamin E in
short-bowel syndrome. The study also showed that vitamin E supplementation
may help stem and allow for a partial reversal of the neurologic
complications seen with vitamin E deficiency.
Vitamin E may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
The hypothesis is that vitamin E helps protect against the oxidation of
unsaturated lipids in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle that
initiates a complex sequence of events leading to atherosclerotic plaque.
Increased dietary vitamin E concentrations may be associated with a lower
risk of stroke. In a study done in 2000, vitamin E supplementation
decreased the risk of cerebral infarction, without elevating the risk of
subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors concluded that vitamin E
supplementation may help prevent ischemic stroke in high-risk hypertensive
patients, although further studies are needed.
Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia:
There is increased oxidative damage in the brain of Alzheimer's disease
(AD) patients and excess of free radicals. Vitamin E can prevent
free-radical-mediated cell death and possibly diminish cognitive
deterioration. The results of a clinical trial in 2000 showed that
treatment with vitamin E delayed the time to important functional
endpoints. It suggested that vitamin E may slow the disease progression in
moderately advanced AD patients.
The use of vitamin C and E supplements may protect against the development
of dementia and poor cognitive functioning. Results from a study on
dementia in elderly men suggested that vitamins E and C might protect
against vascular dementia and possibly enhance cognitive function later in
Individuals with low vitamin E concentrations may be at greater risk for
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In 1999, a study published in
the Journal of Internal Medicine found an inverse association between serum
a-tocopherol concentration and the occurrence of IDDM. Therefore, vitamin E may
provide protection against IDDM, which supports the hypothesis that
antioxidants may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IDDM.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress, which is
related to an imbalance in the cardiac autonomic nervous system.
Antioxidants, such as vitamin E may have beneficial effects on the cardiac
autonomic nervous system. A study on patients diagnosed with type 2
diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy showed that 600-mg/d vitamin E
administration for 4 months was associated with decreased plasma
concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, insulin, norepinephrine, and
epinephrine. Vitamin E also improved indexes of oxidative stress.
Researchers concluded that chronic vitamin E administration improved the
ratio of cardiac sympathetic to parasympathetic tone in patients with type
Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and can assist in the modulation of the
immune system. A study investigated the immunologic and antioxidant effects
of vitamin E supplementation in healthy Chinese men and women. The data
showed elevated plasma vitamin E concentrations and depression in plasma
malondialdehyde and urinary DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. The
oxidative stress of T-lymphocyte is lowered significantly by vitamin E
supplementation. Since it is known that high levels of oxidative stress
such as H2O2 inhibited T-cell proliferation, this suggests that vitamin E
has an important role in immune function.
Epidemiological studies show a protective role of vitamins as antioxidants
in the prevention of age-related cataracts and macular degeneration. In a
review of 11 studies, 8 studies found vitamin E was inversely correlated
with cataract risk. Based on the observations, researchers concluded that a
diet high in vitamins C, E, and carotenoids, may aid in decreasing the
development of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration.
Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Children
: A study was done looking at the effects of vitamin E in lowering serum
aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in children with
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that is associated with obesity. The
a-tocopherol concentrations increased significantly with vitamin E
supplementation and the serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase
concentrations normalized. Researchers concluded that children with NASH
should be encouraged to be involved in a weight loss regimen and consider
taking supplemental a-tocopherol.
Natural-vs.-Synthetic Vitamin E:
Natural and synthetic forms of a-tocopherol have been shown to be absorbed
equally well. A study giving subjects various doses of natural and
synthetic vitamin E showed significantly less oxidation of low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the subjects given either form of 400 or
800 IU of vitamin E. Researchers concluded that both natural and synthetic
forms of vitamin E are as effective inhibiting the oxidation of LDL-C in
humans. However natural is always the best way to get absorption into your
LifeSource Vitamins - Vitamin E 400 IUw/ Mixed Tocopherols, the most important
fat-soluble antioxidant prevents the potentially harmful oxidation of fat
compounds, enhances the functioning of vitamin A, helps the healing of scar
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